Evolution der Massenrekrutierung bei Heeresameisen

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Evolution der Massenrekrutierung bei Heeresameisen

Beitragvon Merkur » Mittwoch 26. Mai 2021, 10:55

Group raiding.jpg
Gruppenrekrutierung bei Ooceraea biroi;
siehe Video!
Hier das Video.

Publikation:
Colony expansions underlie the evolution of army ant mass raiding. Vikram Chandra, Asaf Gal, Daniel J. C. Kronauer, 2021.
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/22/e2026534118
Abstract:
Collective behavior emerges from local interactions between group members, and natural selection can fine-tune these interactions to achieve different collective outcomes. However, at least in principle, collective behavior can also evolve via changes in group-level parameters. Here, we show that army ant mass raiding, an iconic collective behavior in which many thousands of ants spontaneously leave the nest to go hunting, has evolved from group raiding, in which a scout directs a much smaller group of ants to a specific target. We describe the structure of group raids in the clonal raider ant, a close relative of army ants. We find that the coarse structure of group raids and mass raids is highly conserved, and that army ants and their relatives likely follow similar behavioral rules, despite the fact that their raids differ strikingly in overall appearance. By experimentally increasing colony size in the clonal raider ant, we show that mass raiding gradually emerges from group raiding without altering individual behavioral rules. This suggests a simple mechanism for the evolution of army ant mass raids, and more generally that scaling effects may provide an alternative mechanism for evolutionary transitions in complex collective behavior.
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Das „mass raiding“ der Heeresameisen, bei dem Tausende von Arbeiterinnen gleichzeitig das Nest verlassen und zur Jagd ausschwärmen, hat sich aus dem „group raiding“ entwickelt, bei dem eine Kundschafterin eine kleine Gruppe zu einem bestimmten Ziel führt. In der Veröffentlichung lassen sich weitere interessante Videos starten!
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Ermöglicht wurden solche Verhaltens-Aufzeichnungen durch ein relativ neu entwickeltes tracking-System für farbmarkierte Insekten:
anTraX, a software package for high-throughput video tracking of color-tagged insects
A Gal, J Saragosti, DJC Kronauer- Elife, 2020 - elifesciences.org
Recent years have seen a surge in methods to track and analyze animal behavior.
Nevertheless, tracking individuals in closely interacting, group-living organisms remains a
challenge. Here, we present anTraX, an algorithm and software package for high-throughput
video tracking of color-tagged insects. anTraX combines neural network classification of
animals with a novel approach for representing tracking data as a graph, enabling individual
tracking even in cases where it is difficult to segment animals from one another,...

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